Application Development Considerations

1. Summary

This chapter examines many of the issues associated with application development and considers the declarative approach as a solution to these problems.

2. What is an Application?

In the most general terms, an application is simply a computer-based model of some aspect of the real world designed to solve a specific set of problems. Computing technology has given rise to an ever-increasing number of applications in almost every aspect of life, from the most mundane address books, to the information systems required to track the business processes of an entire enterprise. Regardless of the size or complexity of applications, they all have a common purpose: the manipulation, analysis, and persistence of data.

3. Identifying the Issues

Given this general definition of an application, it is clear that data management plays a large role in any application. As such, every application must address at least some of the following issues:


The data must be stored for an extended period of time.


The data must be correct, according to some defined set of rules.


Coordinating read and change requests from multiple users.


The application must scale in terms of number of users, volume of data, and data complexity.


Providing efficient access to the application data.


Ensuring that the data can survive application and system failures.


Preventing unauthorized access or manipulation of the application data.


Providing general analysis and presentation of the application data to support decision making within the organization.


Allowing the application to interact with other software systems.


Providing a user interface for entry and manipulation of the application data.

In addition to these problems, the application will inevitably encounter change of some form:

Requirements Change

Modifying the application to fit new or changing business needs.

Environment Change

Reacting to changes in the hardware or software environment.

In building applications that handle all these issues, we also encounter development process issues that must be addressed:

Developer Productivity

Ensuring maximum productivity of application team members.

Developer Training

Training team members on the platforms and technologies to be used.

Application Quality

Ensuring the application meets requirements and functionality.


Providing installation and deployment for the application.


Providing a maintenance path for deployed applications.

Clearly, application development in general is an extremely complex problem. The more complex the application, the more difficult the solution to these problems becomes. Fortunately, these solutions can, for the most part, be generally implemented in systems-level software that all applications can utilize. Many of these issues, such as persistence, concurrency, scalability, and others, are already addressed to varying degrees by existing systems; however, there are still many issues that arise when developing applications against these systems:

Schema Duplication

Presentation layers often duplicate the structures and logic already present in the database schema.

Complex Business Rules

Existing systems often do not provide effective support for complex business rules. Client-Side Enforcement of Business Rules - Presentation layers must provide initial enforcement of business rules.

Client-Side Buffering

Presentation layers must provide a mechanism for data retrieval, display, entry and translation.

Traditionally, these problems have been resolved on a case-by-case basis within each application. The result is large amounts of application-specific code that is difficult to produce and maintain. If a general purpose solution to these issues can be found, it can be automated, just as many of the issues relating to data management have been automated by Database Management Systems (DBMSs).

4. What is the Solution?

Historically, application development has evolved over time by increasing the level of abstraction at which applications are built. For example, the very earliest programs were built with machine languages (First-Generation Languages or 1GLs). Application logic was developed directly in the language of the hardware. This was replaced by assembly languages (2GLs), and then again by compiled languages such as C and Pascal (3GLs), and so on. Each successive generation of languages hides the details and complexity of the levels below it. In this way, application development has become more and more declarative, meaning that we state simply what is to be done, not how it should be accomplished.

Another example of this trend towards the declarative, rather than procedural approach is the evolution of database management technologies. The earliest systems dealt principally with sequential files. These were later replaced by indexed access (ISAM systems), then again by network and hierarchic systems, and eventually SQL-based systems. Each of these steps represents a higher level of abstraction. Rather than dealing with pointers and file I/O, application developers simply describe the structure of the data involved. The system, not the application, is responsible for performing the various data management tasks required.

These examples illustrate the value of the declarative approach. By simply describing what is to be accomplished, the system is able to realize the implementation. This automation is enabled by framing the solution in general terms. For example, a compiler is able to translate programs into machine language because the programs are expressed in a formal system that the compiler understands. The database system is able to automate data management tasks because the data to be stored is described in a model that can capture the essence of the problem. In other words, if the solution to a given problem can be formalized, it can be automated: formalization enables automation.

So what is the next step in this evolution towards declarative development? What mechanisms will enable further automation of application development? Clearly, the answer lies in the formalization of the concepts used in application development: an approach that allows applications to be expressed declaratively. This model must allow for the definition of any data, it must allow for arbitrary manipulation of that data, and it must allow rules about that data to be expressed. Ideally, this model would also be as simple as possible.

A brief survey of the current computing landscape reveals a myriad of different technologies for automating various aspects of the application development process. From object-oriented programming techniques to SQL-based database design methodologies and everything in between. The more declarative of these approaches is found in current database systems. This is due to the model on which these systems are based, the Relational Model. Simply put, the Relational Model is mathematics applied to database management. The result is a simple and complete mechanism for describing and manipulating any data, as well as an excellent environment for declaratively enforcing rules about that data. It also provides various kinds of independence, such as logical and physical data independence. This independence is what enables the automation and declarativeness provided by these systems. If this same independence can be utilized to enable the declarative approach to application development, the resulting paradigm would provide a development platform that addressed many, if not all of the issues raised in the previous section.

So the ideal solution is the declarative approach to application development. Specifically, that solution should be based on The Relational Model. In this way, the platform begins with a solid foundation for data management, and then builds on that foundation to provide various application development services such as the presentation layer. Throughout this manual, the resulting paradigm is called automated application development and represents the next step in the evolution of application development technology beyond current rapid application development or RAD. The next chapter discusses the data management foundation of the solution. The Application Development Concepts chapter then illustrates how a declarative solution based on the relational model addresses each of the issues discussed in this chapter.

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